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  • Title: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in Museums and Archives
    Descriptive info: .. New domain:.. IAQ.. dk.. Webmaster.. Welcome.. This web site contains information for those interested in the deterioration processes in cultural heritage objects caused by the indoor environment, especially air pollutants.. Here you will find papers and technical notes, conference and meeting reports with abstracts, about the impact of the air quality on objects in museums, libraries, or archives.. As the focus of this site is on material degradation, e.. g.. metal corrosion or hydrolysis of organic  ...   Papers and Technical Notes.. about indoor air quality in museum environment, material test methods, etc.. Image Gallery.. Photos of the effect of indoor air pollution on materials.. The Indoor Air Pollution Workgroup Homepage.. Meeting reports, abstracts of meeting presentations.. Indoor Air Quality E-mail forum.. Administrivia:.. Webmaster contact information.. ,.. Disclaimer.. This site was updated on December 31, 2012.. The first version of this project went public on the Web on December 20th, 1998.. [.. Page up.. ].. Search..

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  • Title: IAQ in Museums and Archives - Webmaster Contact Info
    Descriptive info: The website of.. IAQ in Museums and Archives.. is managed by Morten Ryhl-Svendsen, Copenhagen, Denmark.. The site started as a private project in 1998.. Morten is most easily contacted by e-mail: webmaster (at) iaq (dot) dk.. Please don't hesitate to write, if you have any suggestions for the site, if you find broken links, or if you know of items which should be on the site.. All comments are welcome.. Home.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, March 11, 2011..

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  • Title: IAQ IN MUSEUMS: Index of Papers and Technical Notes
    Descriptive info: Index of Papers and Technical Notes.. More than 200 presentation abstracts from the.. Indoor Air Pollution Workgroup Meetings.. in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010.. Silver mirroring on silver gelatin glass negatives.. a PhD research by Giovanna Di Pietro, defended at the Department of Chemistry of the University of Basel, June 2002.. Indoor air pollution in museums - An introduction to its effects, monitoring and control.. by Morten Ryhl-Svendsen.. From Restauro 8, 2001..  ...   browser that understands JavaScript.. Display Materials: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly.. by Jean Tétreault.. From "Exhibitions and Conservation", Pre-prints of the Conference held at The Royal College of Physicans, SSCR, Edinburg, 1994.. Also in.. Spanish / versión españoles!.. Repaint, repaint, and thin no more! - or Classification of coatings and Summary of coating recommendations.. ,.. Indoor air pollution was described already by Homer in.. The Odyssey.. written 800 B.. C.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, 2008..

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  • Title: IAQ IN MUSEUMS: Index of Image Gallery
    Descriptive info: Image Gallery Index.. A lead warrior attacked by acetic acid vapor!.. There's more about lead.. here.. Thanks to Jean Tétreault for providing the image.. Lead corrosion in show cases.. by.. Morten Ryhl-Svendsen.. (Large document, may take some time to load).. PVC - a source of chlorides in a museum show case..  ...   Halsberghe.. Peroxide attack on resin coated (RC) photographic prints.. Henns eggshells exposed to acetic acid vapour.. With SEM images of surface.. Deteriorated Mollusca shells.. photos by Lynn Scheu.. Examples of deteriorated photographic negatives and moviefilm (cellulose acetate and nitrate).. photos by Morten Ryhl-Svendsen.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, January 05th, 2002..

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  • Title: IAQ / IAP Group Homepage
    Descriptive info: Homepage of IAP.. Indoor Air Pollution Working Group.. A two day conference entitled.. Museum Pollution : Detection and Mitigation of Carbonyls.. was held at Strathclyde University on the 17-18 June 1998.. Over 30 delegates from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Canada and the US attended.. Several carbonyl pollution issues were discussed and a number of actions were proposed.. The initiative to have the 1998 meeting resulted in setting up a working group and the momentum that was gained has been consolidated during the following years.. Since 1998, meetings have been held more or less annually, at Instituut Collectie Nederland (1999), Oxford Brookes University (2001), The National Museum of Denmark (2001), University of East Anglia (2003), CNR-ISAC Padova (2004), Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institute (WKI) Braunschweig (2006), Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna (2008), and Chalon-sur-Saône (2010).. During all meetings, the developments  ...   here in due time.. Online Presentation Abstracts from Working Group Meetings:.. 1998 Glasgow:.. Conference report.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 1998.. 1999 Amsterdam:.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 1999.. 2000 Oxford:.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 2000.. 2001 Copenhagen:.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 2001.. 2003 Norwich:.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 2003.. 2004 Padova:.. Abstracts and posters: IAQ2004 website at CNR-ISAC.. 2006 Braunschweig:.. Presentation Abstracts and Additional Notes, 2006.. 2008 Vienna:.. Presentation and Poster Abstracts, 2008.. 2010 Chalon-sur-Saône:.. Presentation and Poster Abstracts, 2010.. 2012 London:.. Book of Abstracts, 2012 (PDF, 1 Mb).. From the round-table discussions at the meeting in Glasgow, 1998.. Ten years later, IAQ2008 in Vienna!.. 'IAQ in Museums' discussion forum.. Join here, click on link.. PAGE UP.. SEARCH.. Indoor Air Pollution in Museums and Archives Website: Main Index.. Mail Webmaster.. December 2012..

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  • Title: IAQ discussion forum subscription
    Descriptive info: For those researching the properties of indoor air quality and climate and the implications of this on objects, works of art, and archival records.. This link will take you to the subscription form at the JISCmail server, where you can subscribe and unsubscribe yourself to the IAQ-Museum list.. Also the archive of earlier messages can be viewed there:.. http://www.. jiscmail.. ac.. uk/lists/iaq-museum.. html.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, July 5th 2001..

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  • Title: Disclaimer
    Descriptive info: This web-site is a personal project run by Morten Ryhl-Svendsen.. While the content of the major part of this site is a product of my personal opinions and ideas, I cannot take responsibility for actions taken after reading texts on this website.. Do always be sceptical to what you read and use rather your own common sense than mine.. This site is constantly growing in size.. While the main subject of the website is air quality and its impact on the cultural heritage I'll take the liberty to add anything else I find interesting.. Therefore you might find some of the "corners" of the website quite odd (or maybe very interesting).. Most material on this site is protected by copyright owned by the authors, this goes both for texts and photographs.. You are allowed to cite material from this website, if you include the reference URL.. A note about the format of the site:.. The layout of this website is not fancy..  ...   is to allow access to information for as many as possible, this is why the site lacks any sign of 'Java', 'Shockwave', 'Virtual Reality Modeling Language', or the like.. You won't even find pages written in the newest hypertext mark-up language versions, with a very few exceptions all pages validates as the old HTML version 3.. 2 according to the.. World Wide Web Consortium.. This way the website can be viewed by the majority of people, including those who stick to the early versions of Netscape or Mosaic browsers.. This is about connection instead of web design show-off.. The most important function of the world-wide-web is to set information free.. There are still many out there with low capacity connections, old computers, and more or less obsolete software.. The pages are optimized for a screen resolution of 800x600, however this setting is not crucial for viewing them.. Indoor Air Quality in Museums and Archives.. 1998-2011.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, January 1st 2001..

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  • Title: SEARCH - IAQ in Museums and Archives
    Descriptive info: For a search on.. The Web Site of IAQ in Museums and Archives.. , please enter the word(s) below:.. Webmasters note:.. I've expirenced that this search engine sometimes will not deliver a complete search result: If a keyword is found more than once at the same  ...   In large text documents such as the bibliography you can perform extra searches within the same page with the "Find" function of your browser.. This way you'll be sure to get all references.. Search on.. World Wide Web.. :.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, December 28th 2000..

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  • Title: Silver mirroring on silver gelatin glass negatives
    Descriptive info: a PhD research by Giovanna Di Pietro (dipietro AT arch.. ethz.. ch).. June 2002.. Abstract.. Silver mirroring is a bluish metallic sheen appearing on the surface of silver based photographs as result of ageing.. One of the photographic processes most affected by silver mirroring is that of silver gelatin glass negatives, the most common photographic negative process between the 1880s and the 1920s.. Silver mirroring can appear in a variaty of patterns which can be grouped in two categories: edge patterns and inner patterns.. Edge patterns, the most usual silver mirroring patterns, include all the cases in which the mirroring stain is distributed at the four edges of the plate.. Inner patterns include all the cases as spots, lines, irregular shapes of the silver mirroring stains located at the centre of the negative.. As patterns do not arise by coincidence but they are the risult of simple physical processes, the investigation of silver mirroring patterns gives information on the process of silver mirroring formation and on the conditions under which the degradation has taken place.. The knowledge of these processes is the basis to decide rationally on the conditions and on the materials best suited to prevent or mitigate silver mirroring degradation.. In this work both the local and  ...   of stains with shape resembling the creases of the glassine envelopes in which the plates were stored in analysed and the.. creasing of glassine papers.. when exposed to humidity is investigated (Chapter 5).. Moreover, this work presents a large number of.. examples.. of silver mirroring patterns on silver gelatin glass plates and a literature review of the models dealing with the formation of silver mirroring.. Download the.. dissertation.. (11.. 1 Mb).. The dissertation is in Adobe PDF format.. In order to read it you must install.. Adobe Reader.. Gallery.. of silver mirroring patterns.. Here are collected about 50 images (in low and high resolution) of silver mirroring on silver gelatin glass negatives.. These patterns are described in Chapter 1 of the dissertation.. Contribute (dipietro AT arch.. ch) to this gallery with more examples from your collection!.. Images of the creasing of glassine papers.. As part of the research the creasing of glassine papers exposed to high humidity has been investigated.. Here there are animated gif representing the development of creasing patterns on glassines exposed to a humid environment, both.. freely exposed.. and.. sandwiched between glass plates.. mimicking a stack of photographs.. The experiments are described in Chapter 5 of the dissertation.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, August 29th, 2003..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: Indoor air pollution in museums.. - An introduction to its effects, monitoring and control.. National Museum of Denmark.. Originally from.. Restauro.. , vol.. 8, 2001, pp.. 613-619 (in German: "Luftschadestoffe in Museen.. Eine Einführung in Wirkungsweise, Monitoring und Kontrolle").. The effect of the indoor environment on museum objects has received an ever increasing awareness from museum and conservation staff during the 20th century.. Effects caused by variations in the relative humidity of air have been observed and described for at least the last one hundred years, and so has the effect of temperature, and light exposure.. But pollutants in the indoor museum environment receive much less attention.. This is a bit odd, as the deterioration such pollutants causes can be just as destroying for a museum object as e.. exposure to high light levels.. One reason to this could be that the effect of indoor air pollutants is not always obvious.. Some deterioration types are easily recognized, like corrosion.. But other decay processes are more hidden and harder to detect, such as loss of fiber strength in a material.. And as a pollutant rarely is the only factor in a deterioration process, but interacts with relative humidity, temperature, and even other pollution compounds, the situation is rather complex.. Indoor air pollution is not a uniform problem set, as there are literally hundreds of compounds in average indoor air generally considered as being "pollutants".. These compounds origins from just as many sources, and while a compound may be very aggressive towards one type of material it may be harmless toward other materials.. Much of today's terminology and the approaches towards fighting indoor air pollutants have been adapted from the human health and comfort field of science.. While the technology from that field, such as air measuring methods, will be a useful tool, other approaches are not necessarily adaptable when dealing with the "health" of museum objects instead of humans.. In opposition to people, museum objects are intended to last for centuries or even millennia.. And opposite the human body, which, to a certain extent, will heal again if exposed to small doses of poisonous substances, materials in an object will accumulate deterioration from any attack, slowly decaying more and more.. Therefore even small exposures to pollutants will have an effect in the large perspective, a problem, which, in principle is not much different from that of accumulated light fading of dyes.. Fig 1.. Ammunition sample from the Danish Royal Arsenal Museum.. Cartridges with lead bullets had evolved white corrosion on the lead.. The ammunition was mounted on cardboard and had been placed in a wooden enclosure for many years.. Photo: Roberto Fortuna, National Museum of Denmark.. Museums pose special indoor air quality situations.. In museums we tend to store objects in airtight and confined boxes like display cases or storage containers.. If such a case is made of a pollution emitting material, the pollutants will be released and kept within the case volume together with the museum objects.. An example of this could be a display cabinet made of oak wood, which is known to release formic and acetic acid vapors.. The main factors which controls the concentration of compounds in the air space within this cabinet are the volume of the air, the air exchange rate of the cabinet, the surface area of the wood, and the rate of which the pollutant is released from the wood ("emission rate").. Generally, cases and cabinets have a high inner surface-to-volume ratio, why the total emission from the wood will have a large effect on the air quality.. Furthermore, if the emission rate in itself is high (oak releases much acetic acid) and if the cabinet is airtight, then the carboxylic acid concentration inside such a cabinet can be extremely high.. In this context, most indoor air pollution problems seems to be found in such smaller, confined spaces, like cases, boxes, and crates.. In open galleries or storage rooms these problems are less common, except when large surfaces acts as pollution sources, like newly painted walls or new floorings.. Indoor air quality's effect on metals.. One of the most well known examples of air pollution attacks in museums is that of lead corroding because of exposure to carboxylic acid vapours (fig.. 1).. Already in the 18th century observations were made of lead roofs corroding where in contact with oak planks.. 1.. Lead objects like 'beggars badges' and stained glass window cames.. 2.. , or coins.. , has been reported to corrode heavily if stored in wooden surroundings.. Corrosion initiated by formic and acetic acid vapours will result in lead formate and basic lead acetate respectively.. Also bronze artifacts have shown to develop blue corrosion products if exposed to a carboxylic acid containing atmosphere.. In some instances such a 'sky blue' corrosion product was found to be hydrated sodium acetate, where the sodium could be residues of former conservation treatments.. 4,5.. Silver objects are known to tarnish if left unprotected, this black tarnish is caused by sulphur compounds which may origin from both outdoors and indoors.. Sources of the latter can e.. be sulphur-containing materials like wool or rubber found in carpets.. 'Modern' metals like aluminium, zinc, and magnesium has also shown to be sensitive to attack from pollutants originating from common construction materials, like wood, paints, and adhesives.. 6.. Calcareous materials.. Another 'classic' case history is of calcareous objects such as limestone, or sea shells, which evolves efflorescence on their surface in a carboxylic acid containing atmosphere (fig.. 2).. It has been observed for over 100 years that collections of sea shells stored in oak cabinets could develop a white powdery surface efflorescence.. One of the first reports of this phenomenon was of L.. St.. Byne.. 7.. who in 1899 described shell corrosion on specimens from the National Collection of South Kensington in England.. Byne thought this to be caused by remains of the dead Mollusca inside the shells, as well as bacteria growth.. He suspected that this kind of deterioration could spread like a disease, and to this day the phenomenon is still commonly called "Bynes Disease" even though this name was based on much erroneous information.. Efflorescence has been found on other calcareous materials.. Birds egg shells, limestone reliefs, terra cotta and clay potsherds, and Cuneiform tablets has all been reported to develop long needle-shaped crystals on the surface during storage in new wooden cabinets.. 8,9,10.. Analysis has determined these salts to be various forms of hydrated calcium acetate combined with chloride and nitrate.. Fig 2.. Mollusca shells from a private Danish collection.. White efflorescence was flaking of the shells, and found in the bottom of all the oak-wood drawers.. The efflorscence is very likely caused by acetic acid given of by the oak wood.. Photo: Morten Ryhl-Svendsen, National Museum of Denmark.. Photographic materials.. The presence of oxidizing gases in air may cause a type of deterioration on photographic image silver which is commonly known as "micro blemishes" or "red spots".. 11.. This type of damage gives a reddish hue to the middle tone areas of the image, and may even cause an overall image bleaching out.. These tiny red spots are seen on photographs in direct contact with low quality paper used for sleeves or envelopes, but the problem can also be airborne.. Fresh paint is a major source of peroxides, why spotting on prints exhibited in newly painted galleries is a common kind of damage.. 12,13.. Even peroxides given of from wood-fibre notice boards are capable to bleach out or to discolour photographs pinned to the board (fig.. 3).. Fig 3.. The effect of peroxides, given of by a wood-fiber noticeboard, on a contemporary Black-and-White resin-coated photographic print.. Of the two test photographs shown in the figure, the one to the right has been pinned to a noticeboard for half a year, the one to the right has been kept as a reference (stored in an acid free sleeve in an inert environment).. Middletones in the noticeboard photo has changed to a yellowish/reddish hue, caused by thousands of microscopic spots due to oxidation of the image silver.. Test-photos produced by: John Lee, National Museum of Denmark.. Self-polluting objects.. Finally, a number of materials will, during their own deterioration processes, emit corrosive vapours, which will then either re-attack the material or attack other near-by objects.. This is especially a problem for certain plastics, and is a well known problem in archives.. Examples of this are cellulose acetate, which gives of acetic acid as a break down product, or cellulose nitrate, which gives of nitrogen oxides.. Both plastics has been used extensively in the manufacture of photographic films and both the instability of the material as well as the deterioration products which is emitted are big problems in archives (fig 4).. Also collodion glass plate negatives are known to emit nitrogen oxides, and it is in general recommended that these unstable types of photographic materials must be archived separately from other photographs in order not to harm them.. Both types of plastics has also been used for producing other kinds of objects, such as buttons, combs, spectacle frames, etc.. , and are very common materials in contemporary museum collections.. 14.. A special case of indoor air pollution is of objects, which has been treated with pesticides or other conservation substances against biological attacks.. Just recently this author has seen an example of ethnographical museum objects, which in the past were treated with, among other substances, DDT.. Today, the pesticides are re-entering the surrounding air, released from the object, and are then condensing out on new surfaces.. In this instance the display case in which the objects are exhibited was completely covered on the inside with crystals containing pesticides.. While the objects may be well preserved, this poses - needless to say - a serious health risk for museum staff.. Fig 4..  ...   sulphur compounds.. Completely inert materials include metal; glass; "baked" paints; some types of cardboard, polymer foam or aluminium cell boards; ceramics and terra cotta.. Wood and wooden boards are always the big problem in exhibition designs; being probably the most common house construction material it is every workman's first choice.. Furthermore these types of materials are cheap, and easy to work into shape.. It is complicated to find a good substitute, this is really the core problem in the majority of all museum interior designs.. Here is a real challenge for museum exhibition architects!.. Thresholds for air pollution exposure.. A much debated issue is if it is possible to define thresholds of museum objects' exposure to air pollutants, and if; what they should be.. One can argue that, as pollution initiated deterioration can be accumulative, only a zero pollution level is safe.. However, this will in practice show to be an almost impossible level of air purity to reach for the average museum, and the argument is debatable; with the very same argument one should ban any light at all for museum exhibits!.. Actually, there may be low pollution concentration levels where material deterioration reactions cannot happen, relying on kinetics effects and thermodynamics.. 27.. But only little work on such thresholds has been done, especially with regard to museum object preservation.. The atmospheric background level of air pollutants in a clean outdoor environment has been suggested as guideline for acceptable indoor air pollution levels.. 28.. From this philosophy one can argue that the museum building and its environment does not add any un-wanted compounds to the indoor climate.. This kind of threshold is political based rather than based on research into material deterioration patterns, however, the average natural background levels for most pollutants are often low that a good preventive environment actually is provided.. 29.. Much research is still needed in order to establish safe air pollution limits with regard to cultural heritage objects.. It may be that the most realistic approach is to agree on pollution levels, which doesn't causes more than an 'acceptable' degree of deterioration over a certain time span, e.. 100 years.. A few materials has been investigated in that extent, examples are calcareous shells.. 30.. , pure lead.. 31.. , and cellulose.. 32.. However, the amount of data available is still low, and some of it only provisional laboratory results.. The Indoor Air Pollution Working Group.. Pollution thresholds is one of the topics that several work groups around the world are debating.. One such group is the international Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) Working Group.. This group has during the last couple of years held annual meetings, with presentations of research from group members, and with discussion sessions on air pollution subjects.. Abstracts from all meetings are found on-line at the working group's homepage.. 33.. In the years to come defining pollution thresholds towards common materials in museum collections will be a major task for this working group and others.. Furthermore will the development of more refined material test methods be primary importance.. But just as important is it to raise the awareness on the consequences of using the wrong construction materials in the museum environment, and to develop a general understanding of indoor air quality problems between museum staff.. Notes and references:.. 1: Watson, R.. (1800): "Essay X: Of Red and White Lead".. In:.. Chemical Essays.. III (Seventh Edition), London, pp.. 337-376.. 2: Tennent, N.. H.. & Cannon, L.. (1993): "The corrosion of lead artifacts in wooden storage cabinets",.. Scottish Society for Conservation & Restoration (SSCR) Journal.. , 4,1, pp.. 8-11.. 3: Gottlieb, B.. ; Jakobsen, T.. & Jensen, J.. S.. (1993): "Triste blymønter fra Trankebar".. Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1993.. , National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, pp.. 112-123.. (In Danish, with English abstract).. 4: Tennent, N.. & Baird, T.. (1992): "The identification of acetate efflorescence on bronze antiquities stored in wooden cabinets",.. The Conservator.. , 16, pp.. 39-47.. 5: Thickett, D.. & Odlyha, M.. (2000): "Note on the identification of an unusual pale blue corrosion product from Egyptian copper alloy artifacts".. Studies in Conservation.. , 45,1, pp.. 63-67.. 6: Green, L.. R.. & Thickett, D.. (1993): "Modern Metals in Museum Collections".. Saving the Twentieth Century: The Conservation of Modern Materials, (Proceedings: 1991).. , Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, pp.. 261-272.. 7: Byne, L.. St.. G.. (1899): "The Corrosion of Shells in Cabinets".. Journal of Conchology.. , 9,6, pp 172-178.. 8: Agnew, N.. (1981): "The corrosion of egg shells by acetic acid vapour",.. Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material (ICCM) Bulletin.. , 7,4, pp.. 3-9.. 9: FitzHugh, E.. W.. & Gettens, R.. J.. (1971): "Calclacite and other efflorescent salts on objects stored in wooden museum cases".. Science and Archaeology.. The MIT Press, Cambridge MA.. , pp.. 91-102.. 10: Gibson, L.. T.. ; Cooksey, B.. ; Littlejohn, D.. & Tennent, N.. (1997): "Investigation of the composition of a unique efflorescence on calcareous museum artifacts", Analytica Chimica Acta, 337, pp.. 253-264.. 11: McCrady, E.. (1984): "The History of Microfilm Blemishes".. Restaurator.. , 6, pp.. 191-204.. 12: Feldman, L.. (1981): "Discoloration of Black-and-White Photographic Prints".. Journal of Applied Photographic Engineering, 7,1, pp 1-9.. 13: Ryhl-Svendsen, M.. (1999): "Pollution in the photographic archive - a practical approach to the problem".. Preprints, 9th IADA Congress 1999.. , The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen.. On-line version:.. http://iaq.. dk/papers/iada1999.. htm.. 14: Quye, A.. & Williamson, C.. (eds.. ) (1999):.. Plastics, Collecting and Conserving.. , NMS Publishing, Edinburgh, ISBN 1-901663-12-4, 152 pp.. 15: Weyde, E.. (1972): "A simple test to identify gases which destroy silver images".. Photographic Science and Engineering.. , 15,4, pp.. 283-286.. 16: Löbach, W.. (1999): "Kollodiale Silbergelb-Filteremulsionen als Schadstoffindikatoren für Raumluft und den PAT - Test (Teil I)",.. Rundbrief Fotografie.. , 21, pp.. 12-14.. Löbach, W.. (1999): "Kollodiale Silbergelb-Filteremulsionen als Schadstoffindikatoren für Raumluft und den PAT - Test (Teil II)",.. , 22, pp.. 11-13.. 17: Gibson, L.. (1997): "A diffusion tube sampler for the determination of acetic acid and formic acid vapours in museum cabinets",.. Analytica Chimica Acta.. , 341, pp.. 11-19.. 18: Shooter, D; Watts, S.. F.. & Hayes, A.. (1995): "A passive sampler for hydrogene sulphide",.. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.. , 38, pp.. 11-23.. 19: Martin, G.. (1996): "Study points to use of glass sensors for museum monitoring".. Museum Practice.. , 1,1, Museums Association, London, p.. 20: Sano, C.. (2000): "Indoor Air Quality in Museums: Their Existing Levels, Desirable Conditions and Countermeasures",.. Journal of Japan Air Cleaning Association.. , 38,1, Tokyo.. (In Japanese).. 21: Bacci M.. ,Picollo M.. ,Porcinai S.. ,Radicati B.. (2000): "Evaluation of the museum environmental risk by means of tempera-painted dosimeters",.. Thermochimica Acta.. , 29, pp.. 25-34.. 22: Lee, L.. (1996):.. Selection of Materials for the Storage or Display of Museum Objects.. Occasional Paper no.. 111.. , The British Museum, London, ISBN 0-86159-111-9, 54 pp.. 23: Craddock, A.. B.. (1992): "Construction Materials for Storage and Exhibition".. Conservation Concerns.. A Guide for Collectors and Curators.. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, ISBN 1-56098-174-1, pp.. 23-28.. 24: Tetreault, J.. (1992): "Materiaux de construction, materiaux de destruction".. La Conservation Preventive.. 3e colleque international de l'ARAAFU, Association des Restaurateurs d'Art et d'Archeologie de Formation Universitaire, Paris, pp.. 163-176.. (In French).. 25: Tetreault, J.. (1994): "Display Materials: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly".. Exhibitions and Conservation.. Preprints of the Conference held at The Royal College of Physicans, Edinburg.. SSCR, Edinburg, pp.. 79-87.. 26: Tetreault, J.. (1999):.. Coatings for Display and Storage in Museums.. Technical Bulletin 21, Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, ISBN 0-662-27955-7, 46 pp.. 27: Brimblecombe, P.. (1994): "The Balance of Environmental Factors Attacking Artifacts", In:.. Durability and Change: The Science, Responsibility, and Cost of Sustaining Cultural Heritage.. , John Wiley & Sons Ltd, London, pp.. 67-80.. 28: Tetreault, J.. (1999): "Standards for Levels of Indoor Pollutants in Museums".. Indoor Air Pollution: Detection and Mitigation of Carbonyls.. Presentation abstracts and additional notes: Glasgow 1998.. , ICN, pp.. 15-17.. 29: This may not be the case in certain local areas e.. large cities where the outdoor pollution load is high.. 30: Brokerhof, A.. & van Bommel, M.. (1996): "Deterioration of Calcareous Materials by Acetic Acid Vapour: A Model Study".. 11th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation.. , Preprints: Edinburgh, James & James, pp.. 769-775.. 31: Tetreault, J.. ; Sirois, J.. & Stamatopoulou, E.. (1998): "Studies of Lead Corrosion in Acetic Acid Environments".. 43, pp.. 17-32.. 32: Dupont, A.. -L.. & Tetreault, J.. (2000): "Cellulose degradation in an acetic acid environment".. , 45, 3, pp.. 201-210.. 33: IAP Homepage [Internet]:.. dk/iap.. For a general introduction to indoor air pollution in museums, these references are a good starting point:.. Blades, N; Oreszczyn, T; Bordass, B.. & Cassar, M.. (2000):.. Guidelines on Pollution Control in Museum Buildings.. , Museum Practice, 15 (supplement), London, ISBN 0-902102-81-8, 27 pp.. Brimblecombe, P.. (1990): "The Composition of Museum Atmospheres",.. Atmospheric Environment.. , 24B, no.. 1, pp.. 1-8.. Craddock, A.. B.. (1992): "Construction Materials for Storage and Exhibition", In: Bachmann (ed.. ):.. , Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, ISBN 1-56098-174-1, pp.. Grzywacz, C.. (1997): "The Threat of Organic Carbonyl Pollutants to Museum Collections",.. European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research.. , 10, European Commission - Environment and Climate Research Programme, Brussels, pp.. 98-104.. Hatchfield, P.. (2002):.. Pollutants in the Museum Environment -Practical Strategies for Problem Solving in Design, Exhibition and Storage.. , Archetype Publications, London, ISBN 1873132964.. Lavedrine, B.. (1997): "An Assessment of Pollution and its Effects on Photographic Collections",.. 87-92.. Padfield, T; Erhardt, D.. & Hopwood, W.. (1982): "Trouble in Store",.. Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation.. Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress, 3-9 September 1982.. , IIC, pp.. 24-27.. Tetreault, J.. In: Sarge (ed.. Pre-prints of the Conference held at The Royal College of Physicans, Edinburg, The Scottish Society for Conservation & Restoration (SSCR), Edinburg, pp.. online-version:.. dk/papers/good-bad-ugly.. Indoor Air Quality in Museums and Archives [Internet]:.. http://IAQ.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, November 01st, 2002..

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  • Title: IAQ in Museums and Archives: Concentration Converter
    Descriptive info: Concentration Converter.. For conversion between the two gas concentration units.. m.. g/m.. and ppb (.. parts-per-billion.. The calculator needs a browser that understands JavaScript.. Temperature C.. Atmospheric pressure hPa.. Molecular weight of pollutant.. g/mol.. Concentration in ppb.. Result :.. concentration in.. Concentration in.. Result :.. concentration in ppb:.. Note that the Concentration Converter uses the temperature unit Celsius ( C).. To convert from Fahrenheit or Kelvin you can use the calculator below.. Type in the temperature value of your usual choice of unit, and click "Convert":.. Fahrenheit:.. Celsius:.. Kelvin:.. Please also note that the Concentration Converter takes the atmospheric pressure into account.. This parameter is very rarely measured during air pollution sampling, but the pressure actually do matter as it affect the volume of a gas.. However, if this factor is unknown then use the normal atmospheric pressure at sea level which is.. 1013 hPa.. (which equals 1013 mbar,  ...   4.. O.. 60.. 05.. Acetaldehyde.. 44.. Carbonyl sulphide.. COS.. 08.. Formic acid.. CH.. 46.. Formaldehyde.. Hydrogen sulphide.. 34.. Hydrogen peroxide.. 02.. Ozone.. 48.. 00.. Nitric oxide.. NO.. 01.. Nitrogene dioxide.. Sulphur dioxide.. SO.. 64.. 07.. Background.. The Concentration Converter is based on the equations:.. C1 = ( C2 * Mw * 298 * P )/(24.. 45 * T * 1013 ).. C2 = ( C1 * 24.. 45 * T * 1013 )/( Mw * 298 * P ).. where:.. C1 = concentration in.. C2 = concentration in ppb.. Mw = molecular weight of compound g/mol.. P = absolute pressure of air hPa.. T = temperature of air K.. The equations are modified from ASTM (1991):.. Annual Book of Standards: Vol.. 03, Atmospheric Analysis; Occupational Health and Safety.. , p.. 54.. Related links:.. A calculator for atmospheric moisture (by Tim Padfield):.. conservationphysics.. org/atmcalc/atmocalc.. php.. IAQ in Museums and Archives, 2010..

    Original link path: /papers/conc_calc.htm
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